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Adaptive Brain Lab



Frangou P, Emir UE, Karlaftis VM, Nettekoven C, Hinson EL, Larcombe S, Bridge H, Stagg CJ, Kourtzi Z (2019) Learning to optimize perceptual decisions through suppressive interactions in the human brain, Nature Communications 10:474

Karlaftis VM, Giorgio J, Vértes PE, Wang R, Shen Y, Tino P,  Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2019). Multimodal imaging of brain connectivity reveals predictors of individual decision strategy in statistical learning, Nature Human Behaviour 


Frangou P, Correia M, and Kourtzi Z (2018) GABA, not BOLD, reveals dissociable learning-dependent plasticity mechanisms in the human brain. eLife 25(Oct) eLife 2018;7:e35854

Karlaftis VM, Wang R, Shen Y, Tino P, Williams G, Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2018) White-matter pathways for statistical learning of temporal structures. eNeuro, 5(June), ENEURO.0382-17.2018. 

Rideaux R, Welchman AE (2018) Proscription supports robust perceptual integration by suppression in human visual cortex. Nature Communications, volume 9, Article number: 1502.


Van Grootel TJ, Meeson A, Munk M, Kourtzi Z, Movshon A, Logothetis NK, Kiorpes L (2017) Development of visual cortical function in infant macaques: a BOLD fMRI study. PLoS ONE 12(11): e0187942, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187942.

Wang R, Shen Y, Tino P, Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2017) Learning predictive statistics from temporal sequences: dynamics and strategies. Journal of Vision, 17(12):1, 1–16, doi:10.1167/17.12.1.

Giorgio J, Karlaftis VM, Wang R, Shen Y, Tino P, Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2017) Functional brain networks for learning predictive statistics. Cortex 2017 Aug 18. pii: S0010-9452(17)30271-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2017.08.014.

Wang R, Shen Y, Tino P, Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2017) Learning predictive statistics: strategies and brain mechanisms. Journal of Neuroscience 37(35):8412– 8427.

Kuai S, Li W, Yu C, Kourtzi Z (2017) Contour integration over time: Psychophysical and fMRI evidence. Cerebral Cortex, 27: 3042-3051.

Goncalves NR & Welchman AE (2017) ‘‘What Not’’ Detectors Help the Brain See in Depth. Current Biology 27, 1403–1412. Doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.03.074.

Bettinardi RG, Deco G, Karlaftis VM, Van Hartevelt, TJ, Fernandes HM, Kourtzi Z, Kringelbach ML, Zamora-Lopez G (2017) How structure sculpts function: Unveiling the contribution of anatomical connectivity to the brain's spontaneous correlation structure. Chaos, 27: 047409.


Eck J, Kaas AL, Mulders JL, Hausfeld L, Kourtzi Z, Goebel R (2016) The Effect of Task Instruction on Haptic Texture Processing: The Neural Underpinning of Roughness and Spatial Density Perception. Cerebral Cortex, Volume 26, Issue 1, 1 January 2016, Pages 384–401.

Alahmadi HH, Shen Y, Fouad S, Luft CD, Bentham P, Kourtzi Z, Tino P (2016) Classifying Cognitive Profiles Using Machine Learning with Privileged Information in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Frontiers Computational Neuroscience.10:117.

Welchman AE (2016) The human brain in depth: how we see in 3D. Annual Review of Vision Science, doi: 10.1146/annurev-vision-111815-114605

Schaeffner LF & Welchman AE (2016) Mapping the visual brain areas susceptible to phosphene induction through brain stimulation. Experimental Brain Research doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4784-4

Murphy AP, Leopold DA, Humphreys GW, Welchman AE (2016) Lesions to right posterior parietal cortex impair visual depth perception from disparity but not motion cues. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.371(1697). pii: 20150263. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0263.

Muryy AA, Fleming RW & Welchman AE (2016) 'Proto-rivalry': how the binocular brain identifies gloss. Proceedings Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283,: 20160383, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0383

Sun HC, Di Luca M, Ban H, Muryy A, Fleming RW & Welchman AE (2016) Differential processing of binocular and monocular gloss cues in human visual cortex. J Neurophysiol, doi: 10.1152/jn.00829.2015.

Sun HC, Welchman AE, Chang DH & Di Luca M (2016) Look but don't touch: visual cues to surface structure drive somatosensory cortex. Neuroimage. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.054.

Di Bernardi Luft C, Baker R, Goldstone A, Zhang Y, Kourtzi Z (2016) Learning temporal statistics for sensory predictions in aging. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience X:Y, pp. 1–15, doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00907


Ban H, Welchman AE (2015) fMRI analysis-by-synthesis reveals a dorsal hierarchy that extracts surface slant. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 9823-35. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1255-15.2015

Patten ML & Welchman AE (2015) fMRI Activity in posterior parietal cortex relates to the perceptual use of binocular disparity for both signal-in-noise and feature difference tasks. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140696.

Dekker TM, Ban H, van der Velde B, Sereno MI, Welchman AE, Nardini M (2015) Late development of cue integration is linked to sensory fusion in cortex. Current Biology, 25, 2856-61. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.09.043

Kourtzi Z, Welchman AE (2015) Adaptive shape coding for perceptual decisions in the human brain. Journal of Vision 15.7 (2015): 2-2.

Di Bernardi Luft C, Baker R, Bentham P, Kourtzi Z (2015) Learning temporal statistics for sensory predictions in mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia 75 (2015): 368-380

Christian J, Goldstone A, Kuai SG, Chin W, Abrams D, Kourtzi Z (2015) Socio-cognitive profiles for visual learning in young and older adult. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 7 (2015): 105

Baker R, Bentham P, Kourtzi Z (2015) Learning to predict is spared in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease. Experimental brain research (2015): 1-9

Di Bernardi Luft C, Meeson A, Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2015) Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2015 Mar 4:jn.00753.2014. doi: 10.1152/jn.00753.2014.

Goncalves NR, Ban H, Sánchez-Panchuelo RM, Francis ST, Schluppeck D, Welchman AE (2015) 7 Tesla fMRI Reveals Systematic Functional Organization for Binocular Disparity in Dorsal Visual Cortex. J Neurosci, 35(7): 3056-3072.

Pelekanos V, Ban H, Welchman A (2015) Brightness masking is modulated by disparity structure. VISION RESEARCH, 110 (2015) 87-92. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2015.02.010


Baker R, Dexter M, Harwicke T, Goldstone A, Kourtzi Z (2014) Learning to predict: exposure to temporal sequences facilitates prediction of future events. Vision Research, 99, 124-33.

Chang DH, Mevorach C, Kourtzi Z, Welchman AE (2014) Training Transfers the Limits on Perception from Parietal to Ventral Cortex. Current Biology, 14, 01071-9.

Elliott MT, Wing AM, Welchman AE (2014) Moving in time: Bayesian causal inference explains movement coordination to auditory beats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281 (1786).

Lestou V, Lam JML, Humphreys K, Kourtzi Z, Humphreys GW (2014) A dorsal visual route necessary for global form perception: evidence from neuropsychological fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26, 621-34.

Murphy AP, Leopold DA, Welchman AE (2014) Perceptual memory drives learning of retinotopic biases for bistable stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 60.

Muryy AA, Fleming RW, Welchman AE (2014) Key characteristics of specular stereo. Journal of Vision, 14(4): 14, doi: 10.1167/14.14.14.

Shen Y, Mayhew S, Kourtzi Z, Tino P (2014) A spatial mixture approach to inferring sub-ROI spatio-temporal patterns from rapid event-related fMRI data. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 16, 657-64.

Shen Y, Mayhew SD, Kourtzi Z, Tino P (2014) Spatial-temporal modelling of fMRI data through spatially regularised mixture of Hidden Process Model. NeuroImage, 84, 657-71.

Sun H, Ban H, Di Luca M, Welchman AE (2014) fMRI evidence for areas that process surface gloss in the human visual cortex. Vision Research;109:149-57. doi: 10.1016/j.visres. 2014.11.012.


Chang D, Kourtzi Z, Welchman AE (2013) Mechanisms for extracting a signal from noise as revealed though the specificity and generality of task training. J Neuroscience, 33, 10962-71.

Dövencioglu D, Ban H, Schofield AJ, Welchman AE (2013) Perceptual integration for qualitatively different 3-D cues in the human brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 1–15.

Dövencioglu DN, Welchman AE, Schofield AJ (2013) Perceptual learning of second order cues for layer decomposition. Vision Research, 77, 1-9

Garcia A, Kuai S, Kourtzi Z (2013) Differences in the time course of learning for hard compared to easy training. Frontiers in Perception Science, 4,110.

Johannsen L, Li KZH, Chechlacz M, Bibi A, Kourtzi Z, Wing AM (2013) Functional neuroimaging of the interference between working memory and the control of periodic ankle movement timing. Neuropsychologia, 51 2142-53.

Kuai S, Kourtzi Z (2013)Learning to see, but not discriminate visual forms is impaired in aging. Psychological Science, 24, 412-22.

Kuai S, Levi D, Kourtzi Z (2013)Learning optimizes decision templates in the ventral visual cortex. Current Biology, 23, 1799-804.

Mayhew SD, Kourtzi Z (2013) Dissociable circuits for visual shape learning in the young and aging human brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 27, 75.

Murphy AP, Ban H, Welchman AE (2013) Integration of texture and disparity cues to surface slant in dorsal visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110: 190–203.

Muryy AA, Welchman AE, Blake A, Fleming RW (2013) Specular reflections and the estimation of shape from binocular disparity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA

Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2013) Linking brain imaging signals to visual perception. Visual Neuroscience, 30, 229-41.


Ban H, Preston TJ, Meeson A, Welchman AE (2012) The integration of motion and disparity cues to depth in dorsal visual cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 15, 636-43

De Jong MC, Kourtzi Z, van Ee R (2012) Perceptual experience modulates cortical circuits involved in visual awareness. European Journal of Neuroscience, 36, 3718-31.

Li S, Mayhew SD, Kourtzi Z (2012) Learning shapes spatiotemporal brain patterns for flexible categorical decisions. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 2322-35.

Mayhew SD, Li S, Kourtzi Z (2012) Learning acts on distinct processes form visual form perception in the human brain. J Neuroscience, 32, 775-86.


Elliott MT, Wing AM, Welchman AE (2011) The effect of ageing on multisensory integration for the control of movement timing. Experimental Brain Research 213

Kourtzi Z, Connor E (2011) Neural representations for object perception: structure, category and adaptive coding. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 34, 45-67.

Lugtigheid AJ, Brenner E, Welchman AE (2011) Speed judgments of three-dimensional motion incorporate extraretinal information. Journal of Vision, 11(13), 1-11

Lugtigheid AJ, Welchman AE (2011) Evaluating methods to measure time-to-contact. Vision Research, 51, 2234-2241


Chen D, Li S, Kourtzi Z, Wu S (2010) Behavior-constrained support vector machines for fMRI data analysis. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 21, 1680-5.

Das K, Li S, Giesbrecht B, Kourtzi Z, Eckstein MP (2010) Predicting perceptual performance from neural activity. In the Conference Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Neuroergonomics, T. Marek, W. Karwowski, & V. Rice (Eds). CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.

Elliott MT, Wing AM, Welchman AE (2010) Multisensory cues improve sensorimotor synchronisation. European Journal of Neurscience 31, 1828-1835

Gerardin P, Kourtzi Z, Mamassian P (2010) Prior knowledge of illumination for 3D perception in the human brain. PNAS, 107,16309-14.
Mayhew SD, Li S, Storrar JK, Tsvetanov KA, Kourtzi Z (2010) Learning Shapes the Representation of Visual Categories in the Aging Human Brain. J Cogn Neuroscience, 22, 2899-912.

Welchman AE, Stanley J, Schomers MR, Miall RC, Bülthoff HH (2010) The quick and the dead: when reaction beats intention. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277, 1667-1674

Wing AM, Doumas M, Welchman AE (2010) Combining multisensory temporal information for movement synchronisation. Experimental Brain Research 200, 277-282

Zhang J, Kourtzi Z (2010) Learning-dependent plasticity with and without training in the human brain. PNAS, 107,13503-8.

Zhang J, Meeson A, Welchman AE, Kourtzi Z (2010) Learning alters the tuning of fMRI multi-voxel patterns for visual forms. J Neuroscience, 30,14127-33.

Duncan K, Hadjipapas A, Li S, Kourtzi Z, Bagshaw A, Barnes G (2010) Identifying spatially overlapping local cortical networks with MEG. Human Brain Mapping, 1003-16.

Kourtzi Z (2010) Visual learning for perceptual and categorical decisions in the human brain. Vision Research, 50, 433-440.

Papathomas TV, Kourtzi Z, Welchman, AE (2010) Perspective-based illusory movement in a flat billboard-an explanation. Perception, 39, 1086-93.

Peterson MF, Das K, Sy J, Li S, Giesbrecht B, Kourtzi Z, Eckstein MV (2010)Ideal observer analysis for task normalization of pattern classifier performance applied to EEG and fMRI data. J Optical Society of America A 27, 2670-2683.


Elliott MT, Welchman AE, Wing AM (2009) Being discrete helps keep to the beat. Experimental Brain Research 192, 731-7

Jastorff J, Kourtzi Z, Giese M (2009) Visual learning shapes the processing of complex movement stimuli in the human brain. J Neuroscience, 29, 14026-38.

Kourtzi, Z (2009) Visual learning for flexible decisions in the human brain. Learning & Perception, 1, 1, 99-114.

Kourtzi, Z (2009) Challenges in object recognition: A commentary on Biederman & Cooper 1991. Perception, 38, 809-825.

Li S, Mayhew SD, Kourtzi Z (2009) Learning shapes the representation of behavioral choice in the human brain. Neuron, 62, 441-52.

Preston TJ, Kourtzi Z, Welchman AE (2009) Adaptive estimation of three-dimensional structure in the human brain. J Neuroscience, 29,1688-98.

Raemaekers M, Lankheet MJM, Moorman S, Kourtzi Z, van Wezel RJA (2009) Directional anisotropy of motion responses in retinotopic cortex. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 3970-80.

Schwarzkopf DS, Zhang J, Kourtzi Z (2009) Flexible learning of natural statistics in the human brain. J Neurophysiology, 102, 1854-67.

Welchman AE, Harris JM, Brenner E (2009) Extra-retinal signals support the estimation of 3D motion. Vision Research 49, 782-789


Kourtzi Z, Krekelberg, B, van Wezel R (2008) Linking form and motion in the primate brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 230-236.

Lestou V, Pollick F, Kourtzi Z (2008) Neural substrates for action understanding at different description levels in the human brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 324-341.

Ostwald D, Lam, JM, Li S, Kourtzi Z (2008)Neural coding of global form in the human visual cortex. J Neurophysiology, 99, 2456-69.

Preston TJ, Li S, Kourtzi Z, Welchman AE (2008)Multivoxel pattern selectivity for perceptually-relevant binocular disparities in the human brain. J Neuroscience, 8,11315-27.

Schwarzkopf DS, Kourtzi Z (2008) Experience shapes the utility of natural statistics for perceptual contour integration. Current Biology, 18, 1162-7.

Welchman AE, Lam JM, Bülthoff HH (2008) Bayesian motion estimation accounts for a surprising bias in 3D vision. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105, 12087-92


Chandrasekaran CF, Canon V, Dahmen JC, Kourtzi Z, Welchman AE (2007) Neural correlates of disparity-defined shape discrimination in the human brain. J Neurophysiology, 97, 1553-1565.

Li S, Ostwald D, Giese M, Kourtzi Z (2007) Flexible coding for categorical decisions in the human brain. J Neuroscience. 27, 12321-30.

Weigelt S, Kourtzi Z, Kohler A, Singer W, Muckli L (2007) The cortical representation of objects rotating in depth. J Neuroscience., 27, 3864-74.


Jastorff J, Kourtzi Z, Giese M (2006) Learning to discriminate complex movements: Biological versus artificial trajectories. J of Vision, 6, 791-804.

Kourtzi Z (2006) Textures of natural images in the human brain. Focus on "orientation-selective adaptation to first- and second-order patterns in human visual cortex". J Neurophysiology., 95, 591-2.

Kourtzi Z, Augath M, Logothetis NK, Movshon JA, Kiorpes L (2006) Development of visually-evoked cortical activity in infant macaque monkeys studied longitudinally with fMRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 24, 359-66.

Kourtzi Z, DiCarlo JJ (2006) Learning and neural plasticity in visual object recognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 152-8.

Tjan B, Lestou, V, Kourtzi Z (2006) Uncertainty and invariance in the human visual cortex. J Neurophysiology, 96:1556-1568.


Altmann CF, Grodd W, Kourtzi Z, Buelthoff HH, Karnath HO (2005) Similar cortical correlates underlie visual object identification and orientation judgment. Neuropsychologia, 43,2101-08.

Kourtzi Z, Betts LR, Sarkheil P, Welchman AE (2005) Distributed Neural Plasticity for Shape Learning in the Human Visual Cortex. PLOS Biology, 3, e204.

Kourtzi Z, Huberle, E (2005) Spatiotemporal characteristics of form analysis in the human visual cortex revealed by rapid event-related fMRI adaptation. NeuroImage, 28, 440-52.

Kourtzi, Z. (2004) But still, it moves. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 47-49.

Krekelberg B, Vatakis A, Kourtzi Z (2005) Implied Motion from form in the Human Visual Cortex. J Neurophysiology, 94, 4373-86.

Moutoussis K, Keliris G, Kourtzi Z & Logothetis NK (2005) A binocular rivalry study of motion perception in the human brain. Vision Research 45, 2231-43.

Welchman AE, Deubelius A, Conrad V, Bülthoff HH, Kourtzi Z (2005) 3D shape perception from combined depth cues in the human visual cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 820-827.


Altmann CF, Deubelius A, Kourtzi Z (2004) Shape saliency modulates contextual processing in the human Lateral Occipital Complex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 794-804.

Kourtzi Z, Tolias AS, Altmann CF, Augath M, Logothetis NK (2003) Integration of local features into global shapes: monkey and human fMRI studies. Neuron, 37, 333-346.

Welchman AE, Tuck VL & Harris JM (2004) Human observers are biased in judging the angular approach of a projectile. Vision Research 44, 2027-2942

Altmann CF, Buelthoff HH, Kourtzi Z (2003) Perceptual organization of local elements into global shapes in the human visual cortex. Current Biology 13, 342-349.

Kourtzi Z, Erb M, Grodd W, Buelthoff HH (2003) Representation of the perceived 3D object shape in the human Lateral Occipital Complex. Cerebral Cortex 13, 911-920.

Welchman AE, Harris JM (2003) Is neural filling-in necessary to explain the perceptual completion of motion and depth information? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences 270, 83-90

Kourtzi Z, Buelthoff HH, Erb M, Grodd W (2002) Object selective responses in the human motion area MT/MST. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 17-8.

Thornton I, Kourtzi Z (2002) A matching advantage for dynamic human faces. Perception, 31, 113-132.

Grill-Spector K, Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N (2001) The lateral occipital complex and its role in object recognition. Vision Research, 41, 1409-22.

Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N (2001) Representation of perceived object shape by the human lateral occipital complex. Science, 24, 1506-9.

Kourtzi Z, Nakayama K (2001) Distinct mechanisms for the representation of moving and static objects. Visual Cognition, 9, 248-264.

Kourtzi Z, Shiffrar M (2001) The visual representation of malleable and rigid objects that deform as they rotate. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 27, 335-55.

Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N (2000) Activation in human MT/MST for static images with implied motion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 1-8.

Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N (2000) Implied motion activates extrastriate motion-processing areas. Response to David and Senior (2000). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 295-296.

Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N (2000) Cortical regions involved in perceiving object shape. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 3310-3318.

Loula F, Kourtzi Z & Shiffrar M (2000) Surface segmentation cues influence negative priming for novel and familiar shapes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 26, 929-944.